Publications

This collection of publications includes research articles, presentations, tools, and briefs on a range of MTSS/RTI related topics. As a result of revisions to the website, links embedded within documents may no longer be correct. To ensure you are able to access supplemental or related materials search by the title of the document on the website.

Non-Center Resources

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This 2008 brief discusses how RTI can be adapted for English Language Learners (ELL). It provides an initial framework in the use of RTI that considers students’ life experiences, including their language proficiencies in their first and second language, as well as the contexts in which they are taught. The brief begins by explaining what RTI is, and how the three tiered model of instruction and intervention can be used with ELL students. The brief then provides a detailed table of information for each tier that delineates guiding questions, instruction/intervention, service provider and necessary service provider skills. The brief concludes with an overview of how RTI can help students in general, and ELL students in particular.

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This handbook, released in 2009 by the Center on Instruction, draws on the experiences of eight states engaged in large-scale Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation to identify key considerations for state-level RTI policy and practice. It provides answers to states’ commonly asked questions and offers recommendations for how technical assistance providers can best support states pursuing large-scale implementation.

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This literature review provides a brief history of curriculum-based measurement (CBM), clarifying its relationship to curriculum-based assessment, a summary of the primary features of CBM, and a rationale for its design. Extensions of CBM to new research domains are identified, and a perspective is provided on the place of CBM in the broader context of educational assessment. This paper was written by Stanley L. Deno of the University of Minnesota.

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This collection of materials addresses the regulatory requirements regarding early intervening services (EIS) and RTI. It was produced by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) in the U.S. Department of Education.

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On July 28, 2008 the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) released guidance on the appropriate use of IDEA-Coordinated Early Intervening Services (CEIS) funding. This guidance is intended to provide states with information regarding the use of funds provided under Part B of the IDEA by local education agencies to develop and implement coordinated early intervening services for students who are not currently identified as needing special education.

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This brief explains factors that you must consider before implementing student progress monitoring in your school. Three main issues are discussed, including: goal oriented issues, staff oriented issues, and administrative and logistical issues.

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This 2007 brief studies an RTI model as a method of identifying children for special education services. The brief illustrates the role of progress monitoring within RTI through two student profiles.

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This document, developed by the Tigard-Tualatin School District in Tigard, OR in October 2009, includes information on Effective Behavior and Instructional Support (EBIS) as a structured, systematic process (1) to review school-wide behavior and academic data in order to evaluate the effectiveness of core programs, (2) to screen and identify students needing additional academic and/or behavior support, and (3) to plan, implement, and modify interventions for these students. The document focuses on secondary school (middle schools and high schools) and explains how EBIS works with English Language Learner (ELL) students.

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This brief addresses significant changes from previous regulations to current regulatory requirements regarding the identification of specific learning disabilities. It was produced by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) in the U.S. Department of Education.

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This Practice Guide, released by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) in April 2009, aims to help educators develop and implement Response to Intervention (RTI) to assist students struggling in math. The focus is building an instructional program in order to improve outcomes for students who have difficulty with math. The guide presents recommendations about screening, instruction, and progress monitoring and indicates the quality of the research base that supports them. It includes common questions and potential concerns that might arise with each recommendation and suggestions to help alleviate those concerns. Technical details about the studies that were used to generate the recommendations are also presented.

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This Practice Guide, released by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) in February 2009, aims to help educators develop and implement Response to Intervention to assist students struggling with reading. The focus is building an instructional program in order to improve outcomes for students who have difficulty with reading as well as set in place a screening process for all students. The guide presents recommendations and indicates the quality of the research base that supports them. It includes common questions and potential concerns that might arise with each recommendation and suggestions to help alleviate those concerns. Technical details about the studies that were used to generate the recommendations are also presented.

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This Practice Guide, released by Institute of Education Sciences (IES) in September 2008, aims to help educators develop and implement prevention and intervention strategies that promote positive student behavior. The guide presents recommendations and indicates the quality of the research base that supports them. It includes common questions and potential concerns that might arise with each recommendation and suggestions to help alleviate those concerns. Technical details about the studies that were used to generate the recommendations are also presented.

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This document, released by the Center on Instruction (COI) in 2009, provides a response to the common question “What are states, districts, and schools doing about RTI?” Through site visits and phone calls to five U.S. public schools (three elementary schools and two middle schools), COI compiled information on how particular schools were implementing elements of RTI as of Spring 2007. COI presents this information in this document through the format of frequently asked questions (FAQs).

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The U.S. Department of Education created this presentation to answers questions specifically about funds provided under three Federal programs: Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and funds for Coordinated Early Intervening Services, available under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

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This brief offers some suggestions for teachers on how to use student progress monitoring in an integrated way in the classroom, so that monitoring does not seem like a series of isolated assessments unconnected to other parts of the learning experience.

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This 2007 brief is a meta-analysis of thirty-one studies on interventions targeting adolescents struggling with reading. Specifically, it looks at (1) effective interventions for struggling adolescent readers, (2) what the specific impact of reading interventions are on reading comprehension, and (3) what specific impact reading interventions have for students with learning disabilities. The analysis further categories study findings depending on the type of reading intervention, the grade grouping (middle school vs. high school), and who implemented the intervention (research vs. teacher). The brief was written by a collaboration of authors for the Center on Instruction.

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This 2007 brief describes issues related to the implementation of RTI at the high school level and explains the supports needed to implement an RTI system. The resource provides an overview of RTI and describes specific components, including a comparison of the standard treatment and problem solving approaches. In addition, the brief describes current research on RTI and secondary education and also provides a case study of a high school that implemented RTI. It was written by Helen Duffy and released by the National High School Center.

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On January 21, 2011 OSEP's Director Melody Musgrove sent a memo to state directors of special education to clarify that RTI strategies can not be used to delay or deny timely evaluation for students suspected of having a disability. The memo asks states to examine their procedures and practices to ensure that the use of  RTI as a method of evaluation is implemented appropriately.  

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This 2006 brief on preventing disproportionate representation in special education seeks to answer the question: “Are we identifying and serving the ‘right’ students?”

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The purpose of this module is to help Leadership Teams undertake the support activities necessary to enable classroom teachers to develop and effectively use student progress monitoring data. The module provides guidance on bringing about effective collaboration in the data-based decision-making model, setting measurable goals for school reform, and ensuring school reform is driven by data. It also highlights how the use of progress monitoring can both reduce bias in the assessment process and reduce the likelihood of inappropriate special education referrals. The module concludes with a suggested sequence of study group activities for the leadership team.