The purpose of this brief from the National Center for Systemic Improvement is to synthesize research on coaching and to offer a framework of effective coaching practices. Part 1 provides general information on coaching, including the need for coaching and the goals of coaching. Part 2 describes critical coaching practices that are linked to improvements in teacher practice and learner outcomes. As these practices are most associated with such improvements, they are the recommended practices that should be central to the every-day routine of coaches working in general education or special education settings, as well in environments (e.g., homes, schools, childcare centers) with learners of all ages. Appendix A contains information about various coaching models commonly cited in research and applied in the field (e.g., literacy coaching, behavior coaching, math coaching). To learn more, view the companion Implementation Guide for Effective Coaching of Teachers.