Early Literacy (Kindergarten)
|Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Data|
|Administration & Scoring Time||23 - 43 Minutes|
|Scoring Key||Computer Scored|
|Benchmarks / Norms||Yes|
|Cost||Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs||Service and Support||Purpose and Other Implementation Information||Usage and Reporting|
Cost per student for K: $5 first year, $1.60 subsequent years (materials only); $7 first year, $3.60 subsequent years (materials plus Online Score Entry & Reporting System ; based on a class of 25 students).
PALS-K Teacher Set includes everything a new teacher needs to screen 25 students in fall and spring: an Administration and Scoring Guide, Teacher Packet, Class Summary Sheets, Student Packets, and class Student Spelling Sheets.
The PALS Online Score Entry and Reporting System costs $50 per one-year subscription, per teacher and classroom of up to 30 students, and includes school and district administrator access.
Screening tool may be administered completely using paper version; however, full use of product services requires internet access.
Testers will require less than 1 hour of training.
Developer strongly recommends that classroom teachers screen their own students, though others (e.g., reading specialists, special education teachers) can administer the test.
Allowable accommodations include multiple testing sessions, breaks between tasks, scheduling assessment for optimal times, one-on-one administration, small-group administration, un-timed administration (with the exception of Word Recognition in Isolation), assessing in an alternative location, repeating directions, repeating practice items, students repeat directions, checking for understanding, use of visual aid, and/or use of auditory aid.
To order PALS materials or to receive customer support:
Training manuals should provide all implementation information.
For questions concerning PALS research and development:
The Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) is a criterion-referenced screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring tool. PALS consists of three instruments : PALS-PreK, PALS-K, and PALS 1-3 . PALS measures young children’s knowledge of important literacy fundamentals , including phonological awareness, alphabet awareness, letter sound knowledge, spelling, concept of word, word recognition in isolation, and oral passage reading. The major purpose of PALS is to identify students who may be at risk for reading difficulties and who need additional reading instruction beyond what is provided to typically developing readers. The second purpose of PALS is to provide teachers with explicit diagnostic information about what students know and need to know about the fundamental components of literacy that may be used to target instruction to meet students’ needs. The third purpose of PALS is to monitor students’ progress and determine the effectiveness of instruction or intervention.
PALS-K measures kindergarten students’ knowledge of phonological awareness and early literacy skills. The phonological awareness component of PALS–K instrument is a measure of a young child’s ability to identify rhyme units and isolate beginning sounds. The literacy skills component of PALS-K measures a young child’s knowledge of: alphabet, letter sounds, phoneme-grapheme correspondences, concept of word, and word recognition.
Raw scores from each PALS-K task are summed to produce a Summed Score; tasks and maximum points for each include: Rhyme Awareness (Max 10); Beginning Sound Awareness (10); Alphabet Recognition (26); Letter Sounds (26); Spelling (20); and Concept of Word (word list only) (10). Thus, Summed Scores range from 0 – 102.
Classification Accuracy in predicting the Stanford Achievement Test, Stanford Reading First
|False Positive Rate||0.039|
|False Negative Rate||0.537|
|Positive Predictive Power||0.455|
|Negative Predictive Power||0.962|
|Overall Classification Rate||0.928|
Stanford Reading First
|At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals||0.729|
|At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals||0.850|
|At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals||0.900|
Description of study sample:
- State: Virginia
- Size: 3,506
- 50.2% Male
- 49.4% Female
- 0.3% Unknown
- SES: 58% Eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
- 45.4% White, Non-Hispanic
- 48.7% Black, Non-Hispanic
- 3.5% Hispanic
- 0.3% American Indian/Alaska Native
- 0.6% Asian/Pacific Islander
- 1.4% Developmental Delay
- 3% Learning Disability
- Language proficiency status: 0.9% received ESL services
Cross Validation Study Description of study sample:
- Number of States: 1
- Size: 65,605
- 51.4% Male
- 48.6% Female
- SES: 37.4% median school-level free and reduced lunch
- 56.8% White, Non-Hispanic
- 26.8% Black, Non-Hispanic
- 8.9% Hispanic
- 0.3% American Indian/Alaska Native
- 3.6% Asian/Pacific Islander
- 3.3% Unknown
- 5.8% speech/language impairment
- 2.9% developmental delay
- 0.5% learning disability
- Language proficiency status: 6.1% receiving ESL services
|Type of Reliability||Age or Grade||n (range)||Coefficient|
|Inter-rater||K||45 – 154||0.96 – 0.99||0.99|
|Test-retest||K||467 – 472||0.78 – 0.95||0.89|
|Subtask reliability||K||50,949 – 85,723||0.79 – 0.88|
|Type of Validity||Grade||Test or Criterion||n (range)||Coefficient|
PALS 1-3 Fall 1st
Entry Level Summed Score
|Predictive||K||PALS 1-3 Fall 1st||51,106||0.78|
|Predictive||K||Entry Level Summed Score||41,846||0.77|
|Criterion-related: predictive||K||Stanford Achievement Test||74||0.70|
|Criterion-related: predictive||K||PALS 1-3 Fall 1st and Spring 2nd Summed Scores||Statewide samples; approx 50,000||0.67, 0.53|
|Criterion-related: predictive||K||Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) in Reading||Approx 27,000||0.29 - 0.47|
|Construct||K||As one piece of evidence in support of the construct validity of PALS-K, we conduct Principal Component Analyses on the tasks that make up the PALS-K Summed Score each year, based on statewide data. These analyses consistently yield a single factor (eigenvalue greater than 1.0) that accounts for approximately two-thirds of the variance (0.65 in Spring 2008) in these data.|
|Content||K||The content validity is supported by the process of item development (described in the Technical Reference, Section III, pp. 11 – 19). The guiding principles underlying this process were that (a) tasks and items were a representative sample of tasks from other early literacy screening instruments, (b) items had a history of use in phonological awareness and early literacy research, and (c) items were aligned with Virginia’s Standards of Learning for English (Reading). Each of these principles was further supported by the process of review by an Advisory Panel of literacy professionals from across Virginia, and by an External Review Panel, which consisted of nationally recognized experts in the field of reading, communication sciences, or psychology.|
Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations
|Classification Accuracy in Predicting the Stanford Achievement Test, Stanford Reading First: By Race/Ethnicity|
|False Positive Rate||0.051||0.025||0.036|
|False Negative Rate||0.534||0.545||0.462|
|Positive Predictive Power||0.477||0.391||0.636|
|Negative Predictive Power||0.946||0.980||0.946|
|Overall Classification Rate||0.904||0.957||0.912|
Stanford Reading First
|At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals||0.723||0.726||0.780|
|At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals||0.820||0.800||0.850|
|At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals||0.877||0.930||0.900|
|Type of Reliability||Grade||n (range)||Coefficient Range|
|Subtask reliability||Across 4 SES quartiles; SES determined based on school-level free and reduced price lunch percentages||K||50,949 – 85,723||0.80 – 0.87|
|Subtask reliability||Across race/ethnicity groups||K||50,949 – 85,723||0.80 – 0.89|